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#811 von ( Gast ) , 29.10.2014 22:57

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#812 von ( Gast ) , 29.10.2014 23:02

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#814 von ( Gast ) , 29.10.2014 23:43

The wet conditions influenced play. In the 69th minute, Deportivo goalkeeper Daniel Aranzubia slid past Diego Castro as the forward burst into the area with the ball to equalize.

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#816 von ( Gast ) , 29.10.2014 23:56

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#817 von ( Gast ) , 30.10.2014 00:23

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Posted: April 12, 2004In Einstein's theory of general relativity, space is transformedfrom the Newtonian idea of a vast emptiness with nothing but theforce of gravity to rule the motion of matter through the universe,to an invisible fabric of spacetime, which "grips" matter and directsits course.Two Observations, One Revolution (From Gravity toSpacetime)Newton's theory of gravity (1687) is as familiar to us as walkingdown a hill. As we put one foot in front of the other, the invisibleforce of gravity reaches out from the Earth and pulls each foot downto the ground. We feel the pull of the force and let our foot fall tothe ground and we continue down the hill on our merry way. The sameinvisible force that keeps us Earth-bound keeps the planets in orbitaround the Sun. According to Newton, the Sun's gravity reaches outacross empty space and constantly pulls the planets toward it,preventing them from zooming out of our solar system.This theory remained the strongest explanation for the planetaryorbits and the apparent "falling" motion of objects on Earth forseveral centuries. It was not until the early 20th century whenEinstein began working on his theories of relativity that Newton'stheory of gravity was seriously challenged.In 1905 and 1906 Einstein laid out his theory of specialrelativity in a collection of papers. Central to this theory was hisclaim that the speed of light in a vacuum (299,792 km/sec) was thespeed limit of all matter and energy in the universe. While matterand energy could travel at speeds approaching or equaling the speedof light, they could never surpass it.With this principle in hand, Einstein turned his attention toNewton's theory of gravity. He focused on two observations thatchallenged Newton's theory. The first related to the speed limit oflight, and its implications for the speed limit of the force ofgravity. The second related to the Equivalence Principle.Observation #1 - Instant PropagationProblemNewton stated that the attractive force of gravity emanated from allmatter, but he did not explain how it physically transmitted from onemass to another, nor how long this transmission took to occur. Hesimply inferred that the force of gravity traveled instantly acrossempty space, propagating from one mass to another.However, Einstein, along with other scientists, began to questionthis conclusion around the turn of the 20th century. In the 19thcentury, Maxwell had shown that light and energy, includingelectricity and magnetism, propagated at the same finite rate in avacuum - 299,792 km/sec. Einstein's theory of special relativityconcluded that this rate was the speed limit for all energy in theuniverse. If gravity was a force that transmitted between masses inthe same way light propagated through space, the force of gravityshould be equally restricted to 299,792 km/sec. While crossingnearly three hundred thousand kilometers each second is extremelyfast, it is not instantaneous.Just look at the Sun's light crossing our solar system. Light, inthe form of photons, flies out of the Sun at the speed of lighttoward the inner and outer planets. These photons cross enormousdistances very rapidly. But even at this rate, minutes and evenhours pass before they reach the planets (~8.3 minutes to Earth; ~5.5hours to Pluto).If the force of gravity could travel no faster than the speed oflight, then gravity was certainly not traveling instantaneouslyacross space. If the force of the Sun's gravity did not transmitinstantly, but instead took a definite amount of time to reach theplanets, then something was wrong with the actual orbits of theplanets. Instead of following their observed orbits, the paths ofthe planets should be slightly different.Was Newton's theory wrong, even though it mathematically agreedwith the actual orbits of the planets? Or was Einstein's conclusionmistaken, meaning that gravity was not like other forces and actuallycould transmit instantly?Einstein believed that he was not mistaken. Even though Newton'stheory explained the planets' orbits to a great extent, it did nottell the whole story. Over the next ten years, Einstein worked tofind the answer to the instant propagation problem.Observation #2 - The EquivalencePrincipleA second problem that Einstein encountered was related to theEquivalence Principle. This principle asserts that the motion ofobjects in the presence of a gravitational field is equivalent to themotion of objects in an accelerating frame of reference. If you dropa hammer on Earth, it falls to the ground at exactly the same rate aswhen you drop the hammer in an accelerating spaceship.Let's break this down a bit. In a spaceship accelerating upwardsat 9.8 m/s2, any object will fall to the floor at 9.8 m/s2. OnEarth, any object you drop will accelerate to the ground at 9.8 m/s2.Since this is true, it raises the question of why things fall at allon Earth. If the objects are simply accelerating down, instead of"falling," could it be that the ground is actually acceleratingupwards?The mere possibility that this could be true was a problem forEinstein. If all motion appeared the same in both frames ofreference (the ground and the spaceship) then gravity could not beresponsible for both motions. An observer could not tell thedifference between gravity and an accelerating frame of reference, sothe force of gravity could not be a conclusive explanation for thefalling motion of objects in the universe. What exactly was it thatcaused objects to accelerate towards the ground on Earth?A New Understanding: CurvedSpacetimeIn 1916, Einstein addressed these two matters (the instantpropagation problem and the equivalence of gravity and anaccelerating frame of reference) by reconstructing the theory ofgravity. Einstein presented the world with a new understanding ofhow the universe worked - his theory of general relativity. In thistheory, space is not an empty void, but an invisible structure calledspacetime. Nor is space simply a three-dimensional grid through whichmatter, light, and energy move. It is a structure whose shape iscurved and twisted by the presence and motion of matter and energy.Around any mass (or energy), spacetime is curved. The presence ofplanets, stars and galaxies deform the fabric of spacetime like abowling ball deforms a bedsheet. (Spacetime deforms in fourdimensions, so the two-dimensional bedsheet is a limited model. Tryvisualizing these depressions on all sides of a planet to build amore accurate image of this concept.)When a smaller mass passes near a larger mass, it curves towardthe larger mass because spacetime itself is curved toward the largermass. The smaller mass is not "attracted" to the larger mass by anyforce. The smaller mass simply follows the curve of spacetime nearthe larger mass. For example, the massive Sun curves spacetime aroundit, a curvature that reaches out to the edges of the solar system andbeyond. The planets orbiting the Sun are not being pulled by the Sun;they are following the curved spacetime deformed by the Sun.The Second Implication:Frame-DraggingTwo years after Einstein submitted his theory of curved spacetime,Austrian physi-cists Joseph Lense and Hans Thirring predicted that amass could deform spacetime in a second way - through frame-dragging(1918). They proposed that the rotation of planets and stars or anyrotating mass twists the structure of spacetime near that mass. Notonly is local spacetime curved near the Sun, it is twisted by theSun's rotation. Lense and Thirring predicted this effect to beextremely small, and would become smaller farther from the rotatingmass, but it would occur around every rotating mass, be it a planet,a star, a galaxy, or a person.Einstein May Be Right, But Newton's Theory isStill UsefulFrom this description of the differences found in Newton's theoryof gravity and Einstein's resolution of them, one may get theimpression that Einstein's theory of general relativity completelyreplaces Newton's theory of gravity. Now that we are in possession ofEinstein's concept of spacetime, should we toss "the force ofgravity" out of our physics conversations? No. We need to retain bothEinstein's theory of curved spacetime and Newton's theory of gravityin order to understand our universe.Einstein's theory does provide us with a more accurateunderstanding of the underlying structure of the universe. However,unless one observes phenomena moving near or at the speed of light(e.g., starlight, radio waves, quasar jets) or near enormous masses(e.g., neutron stars, galaxies, black holes), the actual effects ofcurved spacetime and frame-dragging are barely distinguishable fromthose predicted by Newton's theory of gravity. In our common physicalexperience on Earth, where the fastest phenomena rarely reach 0.0001%of the speed of light, Newton's theory of gravity suffices. Itsmathematics are much, much simpler than the mathematics of motion incurved spacetime, and it provides a functional picture of ourphysical world.Previous Tests of General RelativityEinstein was well aware that scientists would want empirical proofif they were to accept his theory of curved spacetime. He offeredthree specific phenomena that curved spacetime could explain -starlight deflection, the error in Newton's description of Mercury'sorbital precession, and the gravitational redshift. Over the pastcentury, scientists have closely observed these phenomena, inaddition to examining a fourth phenomenon known as the Shapirotime-delay.Starlight DeflectionThe central premise of Einstein's general theory of relativity isthat all matter and energy moving through the universe are affectedby curved spacetime. This includes the path of light rays as theyemerge from distant stars and make their way across the universe toour Earth-based telescopes and eyes. When their light passes near amassive body, such as a galaxy or our Sun, its path is deflectedslightly.In 1919, merely three years after Einstein published his theory,Frank Dyson (Great Britain's Astronomer Royal at that time), CharlesDavidson, and Arthur Eddington took on the challenge of observing andmeasuring this phenomenon. They compared photographs of a selectedarea of the night sky with photographs taken of the same area duringa solar eclipse. Looking at these photographs, it became apparentthat stars that should have been behind the Sun were actually visibleduring the eclipse. Their light was bending through curved spacetimearound the Sun's mass. The result was limited by the short amount oftime available to make the measurement during an eclipse (about fourminutes), but it confirmed Einstein's prediction to within about 20%.In 1920, Arthur Eddington wrote a book entitled: "Space, Time, andGravitation," which described this phenomenon. Since then, theresults have been reproduced to higher and higher precision, as thetechnology for observing stars has improved.Between 1969 and 1975, twelve measurements were made using radiotelescopes to measure the deflection of radio waves from a distantquasar around a galaxy. These measurements matched generalrelativity's predictions to within 1%, and now the results are goodto about 0.1%.Mercury's Perihelion PrecessionAs Mercury orbits the Sun, it does not follow the exact sameelliptical path each year. As it goes around, Mercury's orbit slowlyturns, or precesses, in the direction of its revolution around theSun. Its perihelion point (the point of orbit closest to the Sun)shifts slightly each time around. Astronomers have observed thatover every one hundred years Mercury's orbit has precessed another574 arcseconds around (0.16?).Newton's theory of gravity largely accounted for this phenomenonand explained that it is caused by the gravitational perturbations ofthe other planets. But it did not completely account for what isobserved. Each century, Mercury's orbit precesses a little fartherthan Newton's equations predicted - 43 arcseconds more, to be precise.When Einstein's equations were applied to the orbit of Mercury, itwas a precise success. Einstein's calculations predicted thatMercury's orbit would precess 43 arcseconds/year more than Newton'sequations predicted. This matched the astronomers' observationsexactly. The additional 43 arcseconds were a natural effect ofMercury's motion through the spacetime curved by the Sun.Gravitational RedshiftAnother phenomenon predicted by Einstein's general theory ofrelativity is that light loses energy as it emerges from agravitational field. When light loses energy, its wavelength becomeslonger and the color of the light shifts toward the red end of thespectrum (thus called the "redshift").Two key tests of the gravitational redshift are the Pound-RebkaExperiment and NASA's Gravity Probe A. In 1960, physicists RobertPound and Glen Rebka were able to detect the redshift of high-energygamma rays in an elevator shaft at Harvard University. They sentgamma rays up from the bottom of the shaft to a sensor 74 feet high.As the gamma rays climbed the 74 feet out of Earth's gravitationalfield, they lost a minuscule amount of energy (~ 2 parts in atrillion), which Pound and Rebka were able to detect. Theirmeasurement agreed with Einstein's predictions to within 10%, laterimproved to about 2%.A more precise test of the redshift was conducted by Gravity ProbeA in 1976, a rocket-based experiment, also known as the Vessot-Levinetest. In this experiment, a hydrogen-maser clock was launched to analtitude of 6,000 miles. The frequency of the clock in flight wascompared to the frequency of a matching clock on the ground. Theexperiment revealed that the frequencies of the clocks differedslightly, matching Einstein's predictions to within 70 parts permillion.Shapiro Time-DelayIn 1964, Irwin Shapiro, an astrophysicist at Harvard University,identified another phenomenon that Einstein's curved spacetime shouldcause: the apparent reduction of the speed of light (orelectromagnetic waves) when it passes through a gravitational field.Since 1964, a systematic program has been in place to test thepresence of this phenomenon to a greater and greater precision.Scientists have used radio telescopes to perform "radar ranging" onvarious objects whose distance is precisely known. They began bybouncing signals off of Mercury and Venus.When the line of sight between the Earth and Mercury was far fromthe Sun, the travel time of the signal was barely delayed, if at all.But as the line of sight neared the Sun, the delay increased.Scientists predicted that, according to Einstein's equations, thesignal would be delayed by 200 microseconds if it traveled right nextto the Sun. When performing the experiment, the result matched thisprediction.In addition to bouncing signals off of Mercury, astronomers havebounced signals off of Venus and off the Mariner 6 and Mariner 7spacecrafts as they orbited Mars. In one of the most precisemeasurements of this time-delay effect, scientists used a transponderleft on the surface of Mars by one of NASA's Viking landers. Thisexperiment confirmed Einstein's prediction to within 0.1%.Most recently, in June, 2002, Italian physicists B. Bertotti, L.Iess, and P. Tortora bounced radio waves, as they passed near theSun, off the Cassini spacecraft - a joint NASA and Italian SpaceAgency satellite and probe en route to a rendezvous with Saturn inJuly, 2004. Their observations confirmed Einstein's prediction towithin 20 parts per million.Why Perform Another Test of GeneralRelativity?We wonder about the stars, about our universe, and about howthings work - wonder is an important part of human life. Gravity isthe most fundamental force in nature; it affects all of us all thetime. But even though we've placed men on the Moon, gravity is stillan enigma - we still don't completely understand it. Einstein's 1916general theory of relativity forever changed our notions of space andtime, and it gave us a new way to think about gravity.But, although general relativity has become a cornerstone ofmodern physics, it remains one of the least tested theories inphysics. The frame-dragging effect has never been directlyexperimentally verified, and none of the previous tests of thegeodetic effect come close to the precision that will be achieved bythe gyroscopes and SQUID readouts of Gravity Probe B. If we are tocontinue to advance our knowledge of fundamental laws of nature andthe universe, we must experimentally test and verify the predictionsof our theories.Gravity Probe B is one of the most sophisticated physicsexperiments ever attempted. Over 40 years in development, it hasrequired the efforts of dozens of scientists and engineers atStanford University, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, NASA'sMarshall Space Flight Center and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center forAstrophysics, along with many others. It has spawned numerousadvances in navigation technology and materials precision. Mostimportantly, it will provide us a glimpse into the sublime structureof our universe.Will Gravity Probe B Verify or RefuteEinstein?Will the results of Gravity Probe B verify Einstein's theory ofcurved spacetime and frame-dragging, or will Einstein's theory berefuted? If the former proves true, then we will have made the mostprecise measurement of the shape of local spacetime and confirmed themathematics of general relativity to a new standard of precision. Ifthe latter proves true, then we may be faced with the challenge ofconstructing a new theory of the universe's structure and the motionof matter.Will Gravity Probe B Reveal Where "Inertia" ComesFrom?One of the fundamental concepts of our physical world is that allobjects at rest or in motion have inertia, or a tendency to keepdoing whatever they are doing. But where does this tendency orproperty come from? Does is come from within matter itself? Or isit related to the underlying universe?In the late 1800's, Austrian physicist Ernst Mach proposed thatthe property of inertia comes from the motion of matter in thedistant universe. The reason an object resists changes in motion isbecause it is somehow connected to the motion of all the other matterin the universe. It is a gravitational interaction that creates theproperty of inertia.Gravity Probe B's investigation of frame-dragging will contributeto this question, because for distant matter to affect local matter,there has to be a gravitational link between the two. Einstein'stheory of the geometry of spacetime and the effects of frame-draggingcould explain this link.Mars rover collectible patchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This commemorative patch celebrates NASA's Curiosity rover mission of the Mars Science Laboratory in search of clues whether the Red Planet was once hospitable to life.Columbia ReportA reproduction of the official accident investigation report into the loss of the space shuttle Columbia and its crew of seven. Choose your store: - - - Mars PanoramaDISCOUNTED! This 360 degree image was taken by the Mars Pathfinder, which landed on the Red Planet in July 1997. The Sojourner Rover is visible in the image. Choose your store:Apollo 11 Mission ReportApollo 11 - The NASA Mission Reports Vol. 3 is the first comprehensive study of man's first mission to another world is revealed in all of its startling complexity. Includes DVD!Choose your store: - - - Rocket DVDIf you've ever watched a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg Air Force Base or even Kodiak Island Alaska, there's no better way to describe what you witnessed than with this DVD.Choose your store: - - - John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. The design features the space shuttle Columbia's historic maiden flight of April 12, 1981.Mercury anniversaryFree shipping to U.S. addresses!Celebrate the 50th anniversary of Alan Shephard's historic Mercury mission with this collectors' item, the official commemorative embroidered patch.Fallen Heroes Patch CollectionThe official patches from Apollo 1, the shuttle Challenger and Columbia crews are available in the store.Columbia ReportThe official accident investigation report into the loss of the space shuttle Columbia and its crew of seven. Includes CD-ROM. Choose your store:Apollo 12 tribute DVD setNew!Featuring the jovial crew of Pete Conrad, Dick Gordon and Alan Bean, the Apollo 12 mission was struck by lightning shortly after liftoff but proceeded on the second successful exploration voyage to the lunar surface. This three-disc DVD brings the mission to life with extraordinary detail.Choose your store: - - - Fallen Heroes special patchThis special 12-inch embroidered patch commemorates the U.S. astronauts who made the ultimate sacrifice, honoring the crews of Apollo 1, Challenger and Columbia.Choose your store: - - - Women in SpaceWomen of Space: Cool Careers on the Final Frontier is for girls, young women, and anyone else interested in learning about exciting careers in space exploration. Includes CD-ROM.Choose your store: - - - Mars rover posterThis new poster features some of the best pictures from NASA's amazing Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity.Choose your store: | | | | 2014 Spaceflight Now Inc.Delta 314 launch timelineSPACEFLIGHT NOW

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#820 von ( Gast ) , 30.10.2014 01:17

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